I grew up with a mother who loved to read, and shared that love with her daughters. She wasn’t a very big believer in TV as entertainment for her children, which meant my sister and I only had a handful of hours to watch TV when we were kids – usually Sesame Street and Batibot, a show similar to Sesame Street except in Filipino. On top of that, my mother had a shelf containing books she’d chosen for us, and was happy to let us go read whatever we wanted, anytime we wanted.
At the time, we were still living in the big house in North Greenhills with my grandparents, who had what I now know might be called a “private library:” a room set aside exclusively for the storage and reading of books. As a child I remember wandering into the room from time to time to stare at the shelves and inhale the scent of paper and dust, taking down a book every so often to see what was inside. I was, however, far too young to really understand what I was reading – as it turned out, most of it had to do with military history, biographies, and autobiographies: my grandfather’s personal collection. Biographies and autobiographies were his preferred genre, and as for the military history, well, he was a retired brigadier general, so it stood to reason he’d have a lot of books related to his career.
Eventually, as I grew older and went to school, I realized that libraries were, hands-down, my favorite place at any educational facility I was at. At the preparatory school I attended prior to entering grade school, I experienced great frustration at not being allowed to read the research books that the school kept in the highest shelves – enough that I have a vague memory of my mother speaking to one of the administrators, reassuring her that I wouldn’t chew on the covers or tear the pages. I was not an uncivilized savage, after all, and knew how to treat books with respect. I recall my mother’s pride – clear in her tone and in the set of her shoulders – at the fact that she had raised her daughter properly in that regard.
When I entered grade school, the library made a great hiding place for dodging classes I didn’t want to attend. Not only did my grades stay high (I regularly placed in first, second, or third on the honors’ roll) because of all the reading I was doing, but I was able to dodge the bullies who made attending actual classes absolutely miserable for me. When I transferred to another school in fourth grade, I stopped dodging classes, but the library stil provided a refuge from bullies. The library was, for me, an escape from what troubled me, providing me with a multitude of avenues – via books, of course – that would help me forget everything that troubled me for an hour or so.
Libraries, therefore, have been crucial in my development into the person I am now. As a teacher, reader, and writer in my own way, I can say with great confidence that I wouldn’t have become who I am now if it weren’t for the libraries I’d entered, used, and continue to use throughout my life. It’s because of this love of libraries that I picked up The Library Book, a collection of essays about libraries and how they have shaped and continue to shape the lives of the people who enter and use them.
Actually, to say that the contents of the book are all essays would be inaccurate: China Mieville’s contribution is actually an excerpt from his book Un Lun Dun, while Kate Mosse’s contribution is a short horror story. JUlian Barnes’ piece might look like an essay, but it’s actually more like a chunk of a longer fictional work. The rest are an interesting combination of memoir, humor, and prediction, but all of them are connected to libraries: what they were, what they are, and where they might be going. And, since it’s such a grab-bag of genres and tones, the impact of the essays in question tends to vary.
The essays that I found the most touching were, in my opinion, the ones written by those who came from immigrant backgrounds, or for whom the library shaped them into who they are today – particularly if they are writers. Hardeep Singh Kholi’s essay about how the library opened him up to the world in more ways than one was especially lovely to read, because it is impossible to be prejudiced when one is surrounded by the voices of humanity in a library (if it is, of course, a good library). Stephen Fry’s essay, which I think is one of the best in the entire collection, is about how access to a library helped him to articulate his sexuality, and how that articulation led him to a wider world of reading.
There are also the really humorous ones. James Brown’s essay, titled “This Place Will Lend You Books for Free,” almost feels like it was written by a hopelessly addicted soul who has found the best, fastest, and least dangerous way to acquire one’s drug of choice. This is a sentiment that, I think, is very much shared by voracious readers everywhere, who are constantly confronted with the issue of not having enough space or money for all the books they want to read. The library, James Brown declares at the end, is “cheaper than Amazon,” and in the twenty-first century world of easy and relatively cheap online acquisition, this is really saying something – especially since borrowing books is, for the most part, free.
Lucy Mangan’s essay is another gem of this collection. Titled “The Rules,” it’s about what kind of rules she would enforce if she were to have her own library. There’s a bit of polemic at the start and in some of the rules, but the way they are articulated won’t get in the way of the reader having a good giggle at what she’s trying to write. It allows the reader to start up their own little fantasy about what they would do if they were in charge of their own libraries, what rules, and how many, they’d have. Those rules, after all, say a lot about what reading habits are most valued by the rule-maker, and are usually as unique as the rule-maker herself or himself.
Another really amusing essay is Bella Bathurst’s “The Secret Life of Libraries,” which is both informative and a little gossipy in a most entertaining way. It starts out with a discussion about what kinds of books get stolen from which libraries, and what those thefts say about the communities those libraries serve, but it also talks about the people in the libraries themselves, both the staff and the people they serve. There is talk about how the staff treat drunks or the homeless who walk in off the street looking for a warm place to stay; or how in one library a notable TV personality was found dead at his desk and how now the library regularly checks for and rouses sleeping people, just to make sure no one dies under their watch again. Libraries have their own characters of course, and that is what makes them unique and interesting places to be at – one never knows who or what is going to walk through those doors, or what they’re going to do, or what they’re going to read, or ask.
The rest are, as I said earlier, a grab-bag of memoir and polemic. One of the more beautiful memoir-style essays is “Baffled at the Bookcase” by Alan Bennett, who takes the reader through all the most memorable libraries in his life, and how each one was uniquely positioned to influence that particular point in his life. Some are politically-slanted, such as Zadie Smith’s “Library Life,” Nicky Wire’s “If You Tolerate This…”, and Karin Slaughter’s “Fight for Libraries as You Do for Freedom” (which I felt was the best of those kinds of essays). That particular slant in these essays (and which are implied in the rest) are mostly because of why this book was made in the first place: to keep libraries in the UK open against further closure thanks to shifts in government policy.
The only pieces I had an issue with in this entire book were the pieces that were actually fiction: Julian Barnes’ “The Defence of the Book,” China Mieville’s “The Booksteps,” and Kate Mosse’s “The Lending Library.” I picked this book up because I saw Mieville and Fry’s names as contributors, and while I was entirely happy with Fry’s essay, I was disappointed to see that Mieville’s contribution actually came from a book of his that I’d already read, instead of saying something new or personal about what libraries meant to him as a writer and a reader. Mosse’s story, on the other hand, was meant to be a horror story with a library at its heart, but the library didn’t turn out to be that vital, and the story itself was, frankly speaking, a bore. As for Barnes’ piece, it was an interesting attempt to project a future where libraries no longer exist, but it was too short, and frankly, had too many shades of Fahrenheit 451 for me to find it particularly interesting.
Overall, The Library Book is a touching, and oftentimes funny, look at why people love libraries, and why they should continue to stand despite, or because of, the rise of digital books – Seth Godin’s essay “The Future of the Library” makes an interesting point regarding how we should define the words “library” and “librarian” in the twenty-first century. It is, however, a bit of a grab-bag of pieces, and the three fiction pieces I mentioned earlier will likely throw the reader for a somewhat unpleasant loop. Nevertheless, anyone who loves reading, and who loves libraries, will find something to enjoy in this book, and will come away quite satisfied with it.
Community Centered: 23 Reasons Why Your Library Is the Most Important Place in Town
by Julie Biando Edwards, Melissa S. Rauseo, & Kelley Rae Unger on April 30, 2013
As librarians, we know the value of our community services, and our patrons appreciate their importance as well. But in an increasingly digital world, we see the role of libraries as community and cultural centers at times undervalued, and occasionally under fire. When shrinking municipal budgets combine with the nonstop technological revolution, public library services that focus on building community face-to-face, inspiring and educating patrons about art, literature, and music, and helping patrons engage in civil discourse can seem quaint. But it is precisely those shrinking budgets and the onslaught of technologically mediated life that make public libraries’ cultural and community offerings more important than ever.
David Morris wrote a stirring piece last May in which he argues for the value that public libraries bring to their communities. More than just books and banks of computers, libraries are still places where individuals gather to explore, interact, and imagine. We decided to take a look at some of the specific ways in which libraries add value to our communities and serve as cultural centers for our patrons. We separated library services into five very broad categories: (1) libraries as community builders, (2) libraries as community centers for diverse populations, (3) libraries as centers for the arts, (4) libraries as universities, and (5) libraries as champions of youth. Under each of these we highlighted specific ways in which libraries serve in these capacities, and included examples of unique or exemplary library services that support the notion that libraries are about more than just information.
In building this list we had two goals. First, we wanted to highlight some of the incredible work in which libraries are engaged. From tiny public libraries to huge city institutions with multiple branches, libraries across the United States are building community and supporting local culture in exciting ways. Take a look, the examples are inspiring. Hopefully, they will encourage librarians interested in community services and cultural outreach to make connections with each other, share ideas, and build partnerships. We believe that reading these examples will spark some new ideas for public librarians and prompt them to try a new program or service, or to expand upon the great services that are already in place at their libraries. Former Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, a strong supporter of libraries as community builders, addressed librarians saying, “Unless you are out there changing neighborhoods, you are not completing the work you are to do.”Strengthening neighborhoods and championing the cultural lives of communities are big responsibilities. We think librarians are up to the challenge.
Second, we hope that this list will not only inspire librarians to become more active in creating services and programs that are community focused, but will give them some tools with which to advocate on behalf of public libraries. As we said, we all know the value of our libraries. It’s time to take the value we add and use that to advocate for better funding and more resources. Those who argue that libraries are becoming obsolete don’t know what public libraries do in the twenty-first century. We hope you use the examples that follow to help educate stakeholders, making them aware that libraries are more than books and technology. Libraries build citizens. They educate individuals and foster thoughtful communities. They are essential components of communities—worth fighting for and worth funding. Hopefully, the presentation of these examples to city governments, library boards, and the community at large will help us demonstrate our worth and become increasingly valued partners in our communities.
Libraries as Community Builders
- Libraries help revitalize struggling or depressed neighborhoods and downtowns.
- Place-based economic development stresses the importance of offering attractive, functional, and community-based places, such as libraries, in town squares and depressed neighborhoods. Like a major department store in a mall, libraries attract large numbers of people, creating economic opportunities for a myriad of businesses and organizations in the surrounding area. Large cities (such as Chicago), medium-sized ones (Hudson, Ohio), and even small towns (Putney, Vermont) have successfully transformed their libraries into the hubs of vibrant neighborhoods.
- Libraries are important partners in sustainability.
- As key municipal agencies, and focal points for community education, libraries are major players in creating livable, environmentally friendly cities and towns. The Urban Libraries Council released a report detailing the unique ways in which libraries can further sustainability at the local level. Beyond ensuring that library construction projects consider environmental impact, libraries can take a lead in supporting local foods and artisans, like the Peabody (Mass.) Institute Library’s (PIL) partnering with local businesses to pioneer a farmers’ market in their courtyard, or the Richmond (Calif.) Public Library’s (RPL) seed lending library which “nurtures locally-adapted plant varieties, and fosters community resilience, self-reliance and a culture of sharing.”
- Libraries’ special collections grow out of specific community needs.
- In addition to RPL’s seed lending library, there are other examples of libraries that provide circulating collections of everything from cake pans to fishing rods to bike locks. The Iowa City (Iowa) Public Library circulates framed posters and original artwork through its Art-to-Go collection. The Temescal Branch of the Oakland (Calif.) Public Library literally builds the community through its Tool Lending Library, which was created in 1991 to help rebuilding efforts after a disaster. Libraries that start such unique collections show how locally responsive and flexible a truly community-centered library can be.
- Archives preserve historic artifacts, oral histories, digital history projects, and monographs relevant to the community, including minority groups.
- Communities lucky enough to have archivists have a great advantage when it comes to organizing historical records and artifacts. An organized archive is a place where people can research genealogy and immigration history, do environmental research, and more. An archivist is an advocate for preservation who, among other things, coordinates the restoration of maps and paintings, the digitization of vital records, and the creation of oral history projects. With projects like the Mass. Memories Road Show and the Veterans History Project, evidence of the importance of archives is everywhere.
- Libraries are places where people come to know themselves and their communities.
- In the words of Robert Putnam, “People may go to the library looking mainly for information, but they find each other there.” New moms connect at baby story-times; elderly people, often facing difficult life transitions, attend events and find that they make new friends; teenagers meet up in libraries’ teen spaces after school; and readers discuss current events in the periodicals room. In libraries, community-building connections are happening all the time.
- Libraries serve as catalysts for addressing social problems.
- Public librarians know their communities firsthand, and are often the first to recognize a pressing local need, simply because they interact on a daily basis with patrons from all walks of life. This puts libraries and librarians in the best position not only to bring local issues to municipal governments and social agencies, but also to partner with local governments and agencies to address the needs of a community. PIL’s “Library Lunches,” part of the Summer Food Service Program, is a compelling example of how a library recognized a social need, brought it to the attention of the community, and partnered with local agencies to address an important issue—how to provide meals for hundreds of hungry kids.
- Libraries, which champion, promote, and reflect important democratic values, are a part of the community’s political life.
- Libraries can, should, and do play an important role in the political life of a community. From Banned Books Week displays, which combat the perils of school and community censorship efforts, to programs such as the September Project, which gathers community members and encourages them to talk about issues of freedom, justice, and democracy, libraries are pivotal in encouraging informed political involvement. Libraries also help citizens learn how to become advocates for themselves and their communities.
- Library buildings as architectural structures are culturally relevant.
- From gorgeous old Carnegie buildings to modern marvels like the Seattle Public Library, library buildings are rich in symbolism and meaning. Whether it is architecturally grand or the simplest of rooms tucked into a city government building, the physical space of the library communicates to the public our underlying values: that libraries, information, and shared community space matter, something that the American Library Association (ALA) recognizes each year with its Library Design Showcase in American Libraries.
- Libraries provide important business resources, especially for small local businesses.
- With the recent collapse of many big corporations, it has become more widely acknowledged that small businesses provide most of the new jobs in our current economy. Libraries have a long history of serving local entrepreneurs and businesses, but some, like the District of Columbia Public Libraries (DCPL), are taking their business services to a new level. The Urban Libraries Council report, “Making Cities Stronger,” describes several library initiatives, including DCPL’s Enchanced Business Information Center (e-BIC) project. Located at the main branch library, e-BIC includes not only business resources, but also a state-of-the-art video conference room, full-time librarian, and staff-training workshops.
Libraries as Community Centers for Diverse Populations
- Libraries help to ensure that non-English speakers see themselves represented in their communities.
- Multilingual library websites, like those at the San Francisco and Queens (N.Y.) public libraries, are just one of the ways in which libraries help non-English speakers see themselves represented in their communities. Public libraries often collect books in languages other than English, incorporate appropriate signage, and hire librarians and staff members who are multilingual. Additionally, some libraries offer bilingual book clubs. Services like these help all community members recognize the depth of diversity that exists in their communities.
- Libraries provide immigrants with helpful information about, and opportunities to connect with, their new communities.
- Not only are libraries gateways to the community, they provide a place where new immigrants and their families can connect with resources, learn new skills, and meet new people. The San Diego Public Library offers a specific webpage highlighting area and library services for new Americans. The New York Public Library (NYPL) offers English As a Second Language (ESL) classes, provides citizenship information, and celebrates Immigrant Heritage Week. PLA offers an online learning module for librarians interested in providing new or improved services to new immigrants. Services like these make libraries essential for new immigrants, as they provide services and information about their new community and government while at the same time meeting the needs of these new patrons in an accessible and appropriate way.
- Libraries provide information, resources, and support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersexed, and questioning (LGBTIQ) patrons.
- For gay teens, libraries are much-needed safe spaces and supportive librarians are allies and mentors. NYPL offers programs for LGBTIQ adults and teens, including an annual anti-prom designed for high school students who may not feel welcomed and included at a traditional school-based prom. The NYPL also maintains a blog that connects readers with LGBTIQ resources and information.
- Libraries provide information, resources, and support for patrons with disabilities.
- Recognizing that diversity isn’t just about ethnicity, language, or culture, public libraries provide unique and adaptable spaces and services for patrons with disabilities. In 2001, ALA adopted a policy on library services for people with disabilities, and many libraries, including the Denver and Chicago public libraries, offer a variety of tools and services, from software and equipment to special collections and homebound programs. The Nashville (Tenn.) Public Library has “several staff members fluent in American Sign Language.” Going one step further, some libraries develop creative programs to partner with patrons with disabilities. For example, PIL’s Bookworm Café, a partnership with a high school life skills program, allows the library to offer a morning coffee cart to patrons, while providing valuable work experience for students with special needs.
Libraries as Centers for the Arts
- Libraries provide access to nonmainstream points of view and give voice to local artists.
- Public libraries strive to provide collections and services that represent various points of view, and often work closely with local artists to do so. In many communities, local authors seek out public libraries as places to promote and make their new books available, and library services like Overdrive allow local musicians to upload and distribute their work. From the art gallery at the Newton Free Library in Massachusetts to NYPL’s collection of zines,local arts abound in public libraries.
- Libraries provide opportunities for free classes that encourage art appreciation as well as art participation.
- Providing opportunities for children and adults alike, library arts programs range from the simplest of crafts to the finest of fine arts. Picturing America programs, with their focus on American art and art history, creative writing workshops, and painting classes, are just a few examples of the ways that libraries offer a wealth of opportunities to explore and understand art.
- Libraries provide access to the arts for all, not just those who can afford them.
- As Keith Richards said, “The public library is the great equalizer.” Despite the rising costs of concert and theater tickets, public library events (including concerts, author visits, and gallery displays) are often offered free of charge, enabling people of any income level to attend. In addition, library book groups allow people to explore and discuss the literary arts, and the Great Stories Club introduce at-risk youth to literature. The best part: it’s all free and open to the public.
Libraries as Universities
- Libraries serve as the “people’s university.”
- In a time when education is increasingly expensive, public libraries provide information and educational opportunities free for all people, regardless of their socioeconomic status. Offered by libraries across the county, ALA’s Let’s Talk about It programs are wonderful examples of scholar-facilitated learning opportunities in libraries. In addition, many libraries present classes and discussion programs, and some even provide online continuing education courses such as the Universal Class database.
- Libraries offer opportunities for remote access, making it possible for those who can’t get to the library to still access the library’s cultural and educational offerings.
- In addition to bookmobiles and databases, many libraries go above and beyond to make their services available to everyone. Polk County (Fla.) Library System offers B-Mail, a free book-by-mail delivery service, and in Zimbabwe donkey-drawn carts deliver library services to remote villages.
- Libraries go beyond providing content to enabling patrons to create their own content.
- Librarians know that patrons aren’t just information consumers, they’re information producers. Patrons use the library to gain knowledge in order to create their own new and independent works. Increasing numbers of libraries provide spaces and services that meet the needs of people who want to learn how to edit Wikipedia, set up blogs or podcasts, create their own zines, and so much more. Many libraries offer art or writing workshops and groups, and some provide music practice rooms for patrons. Programs like ImaginOn in Charlotte (N.C.) provide exciting models that take community partnership, creativity, and creation to a new level.
- Libraries promote civil discourse.
- The decline of civil discourse stems in part from the fact that it is so easy for people to watch news about, buy products from, and engage—in both the virtual and real worlds—only with those of similar backgrounds and ideologies. Public libraries, through such programs as The Human Library and Socrates Café, can help build small communities of difference that encourage people to interact with and learn from each other through dialogue. By both actively promoting civil discourse through these programs, and by modeling and upholding the principles of free inquiry and expression for all, libraries help individuals rediscover the importance of and increased need for civil discourse in American life.
Libraries as Champions of Youth
- Libraries teach teens important life skills.
- The skills that teens pick up from teen advisory boards, volunteer opportunities, programs, and jobs can prepare them for success in high school, college, and the workforce. Brooklyn Public Library’s Multicultural Internship Program provides teens with positive work experiences, while also providing the library with a diverse staff that more closely mirrors the demographics of its community.
- Free tutoring, homework help programs, and summer reading programs for kids and teens help bridge the economic divide that impacts students’ academic performance.
- The cost of hiring a private tutor is well beyond what many library patrons can afford, so libraries offer homework help and tutoring online, by phone, in person, and even through social media and homework apps. Annual summer reading programs also have a positive impact on student performance and, according to a 2010 study conducted by Dominican University’s Graduate School of Library and Information Science, students’ reading skills get a boost from these popular nationwide events.
- Libraries are important partners in child development.
- Through library collections, programs, and physical spaces, children learn to share, to be engaged in their communities, to participate in the arts, and to explore their immediate world and the world at large. There are surely endless examples of innovative library services for children, including the Middle Country Public Library’s (in Centereach, N.Y.) Nature Explorium, which engages children in learning about the natural world.
These examples are just a few of the many amazing things that public libraries around the United States (and the world) are doing to build and maintain strong community connections. We encourage you to try some of these ideas in your own libraries, and we hope that these ideas will help you be better able to convince your community leaders of the important role that public libraries play in communities large and small.
 David Morris, “The Public Library Manifesto: Why Libraries Matter, and How We Can Save Them,” YES! Magazine, May 6, 2011, accessed June 17, 2011.
Robert Putnam, Better Together: Restoring the American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), 42.
William M. Senville, “Libraries Bring Value to Our Communities,” Planning Commissioners Journal 75 (Summer 2009), accessed June 7, 2011.
Urban Libraries Council, “Partners for the Future: Public Libraries and Local Governments Creating Sustainable Communities,” 2010, accessed June
Richmond Public Library, “Richmond Grows Seed Lending Library,” accessed June 15, 2011.
Iowa City Public Library, “Unique Collections: Art,” accessed June 6, 2011.
Oakland Public Library, “Temescal Tool Lending Library,” accessed June 7, 2011.
University of Massachusetts Boston, “Mass. Memories Road Show,”accessed June 7, 2011.
Library of Congress American Folklife Center, “Veterans History Project,” accessed June 7, 2011.
Robert Putnam, Better Together: Restoring the American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), 49.
Matthew K. Roy, “New Summer Program Provides Free Lunch to Peabody Youth,” Salem News, June 25, 2009, accessed June 21, 2011.
See American Library Association, “Banned Books Week,” and “Banned Books Week: Celebrating the Freedom to Read,” both accessed June 21, 2011.
The September Project blog, accessed June 21, 2011.
Greg Landgraf, “Library Design Showcase 2011,” American Libraries, Mar. 23, 2011, accessed June 21, 2011.
Urban Libraries Council, “Making Cities Stronger: Public Library Contributions to Local Economic Development,” Jan. 2007, accessed June 7, 2011.
San Francisco Public Library, “United States Citizenship Resources,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Queens Library, “Citizenship and Immigrant Services,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Stacie N. Galang, “Peabody Public Library Starts First Bilingual Book Club,” Salem News, May 10, 2010, accessed June 25, 2011.
San Diego Public Library, “Resources for New Americans,” accessed June 21, 2011.
New York Public Library, “ Immigrant Services,” accessed June 21, 2011, www.nypl.org/help/community-outreach/immigrant-services.
Public Library Association, “Welcome to the United States: Services for New Immigrants,” accessed June 21, 2011.
New York Public Library, “Public Programs,” accessed June 7, 2011.
———, “LGBT@NYPL,” accessed June 7, 2011.
The Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, a division of the American Library Association,“Library Services for
People with Disabilities Policy,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Denver Public Library, “Services for Persons with Disabilities,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Chicago Public Library, “Find Services for People with Disabilities,” accessed June 21, 2011, www.chipublib.org/howto/lib_disability.php.
Nashville Public Library, “For People with Disabilities,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Stacey N. Galang, “Cafe Launches in Peabody Library’s Young Adult Section,” Salem News, Dec. 19, 2007, accessed Sept. 27, 2011.
OverDrive homepage, accessed June 7, 2011.
Newton Free Library, “Calendar of Events: June 2011 Art Exhibits” accessed June 7, 2011.
New York Public Library, “Zines,” accessed June 7, 2011.
Picturing America for Public Libraries, accessed June 7, 2011.
New York Public Library, “Live from the NYPL: Keith Richards,” accessed June 7, 2011.
ALA Public Programs Office, “Great Stories Club,” accessed June 7, 2011.
———, “Let’s Talk About It,” accessedJune 7, 2011, www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/ppo/programming/ltai/letstalkaboutit.cfm.
UniversalClass homepage, accessed June 7, 2011.
Polk County Library System, “Books by Mail,” accessed June 27, 2011.
Lewis Jones, “ZDDT Appeal: Supporting the Donkey Library,”Aug. 1, 2011, accessed Sept. 27, 2011.
ImaginOn homepage, accessed June 21, 2011.
The Human Library homepage, accessed June 21, 2011.
Society for Philosophical Inquiry, “Socrates Café,” accessed June 21, 2011.
Brooklyn Public Library, “Multicultural Internship Program,” accessed June 6, 2011.
Homework NYC homepage, accessed June 6, 2011.
Susan Roman, Deborah T. Carran, and Carole D. Fiore, “The Dominican Study: Public Library Summer Reading Programs Close the Reading Gap,” Dominican University Graduate School of Library and Information Science, June 2010, accessed June 7, 2011.
Middle Country Public Library, “MCPL Nature Explorium,” accessed June 7, 2011.
Tags: advocacy, community services