Essays On Observational Learning

Albert Bandura: Observational Learning Essay

Albert Bandura, born December 4, 1925 (Bandura 2013), is a very well known theorists in the world of psychology. A professor at Stanford University for much of his career, from 1953 until 2010, he has been recognized many times in this field (Bandura). His awards include, but are not limited to: the Lifetime Achievement award from the American Psychological Association, the James McKeen Cattell Award, the Grawemeyer Award and a Distinguished Scientist Award from the American Psychological Association (Olson, & Hergenhahn, 2012). He was also honored with the presidency of the American Psychological Association in 1973 (Olson, & Hergenhahn). Throughout his career he published six books, including Social Learning and Personality Development, and Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, and was editor of three additional works which centered around self-efficacy and modeling (Bandura). Though some of his theories have been criticized, they have had a huge impact on our understanding of learning and completely changed the way people looked at learning during his time.
One of the criticisms about Bandura’s theories is that it is too broad and covers too many topics (Olson, & Hergenhahn, 2012). Most learning theories before Bandura had a more narrow scope and tried to focus in on a single aspect of learning or of the environment, but Bandura focused on memory, personality, language, media influence and more (Olson, & Hergenhahn), all of which can influence a person’s ability to learn and how well they learn something. The biggest criticism against Bandura was about his contribution of the concept of reciprocal determinism. Reciprocal determinism is the idea that “the person, the environment, and the person’s behavior itself all interact to produce the person’s subsequent behavior” (Olson, & Hergenhahn, p. 321). His critics proclaim that if this is true, there is no way to figure out what causes what (Olson, & Hergenhahn), and that is the whole point of studying learning and behavior. The four goals of psychology are to describe, predict, explain and control. If it cannot be determined which element causes what, it is impossible to meet those goals.
Despite the criticisms against reciprocal determinism, it is one of Bandura’s most important contributions to the field of...

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Observational Learning Help Children Learn How to Behave Essay

1406 Words6 Pages

As children, we depend on the world to show us how we should behave. We observe the world to see how we should act and when it is the proper time to act a certain way. In psychology this is called observational learning. Observational learning starts when infants began to imitating their parent’s behaviors. It is often found that children’s behavior (expression of emotion) results from observing their parents. In most cases, adults have the same behavior as they did when they were younger. In other cases, adult behavior change’s depending on their surroundings. However, our experience from observing the world can have different effects, because not everyone is the same. In contrast, human expression of emotion can vary. Therefore,…show more content…

As children, we depend on the world to show us how we should behave. We observe the world to see how we should act and when it is the proper time to act a certain way. In psychology this is called observational learning. Observational learning starts when infants began to imitating their parent’s behaviors. It is often found that children’s behavior (expression of emotion) results from observing their parents. In most cases, adults have the same behavior as they did when they were younger. In other cases, adult behavior change’s depending on their surroundings. However, our experience from observing the world can have different effects, because not everyone is the same. In contrast, human expression of emotion can vary. Therefore, human emotions are the most difficult subject to understand. Attempting to study emotions is hard because human’s emotion range from high to low in several categories like frustration, aggression, excitement, depression, fear, sadness, and joy.
Nevertheless, a particular emotional response is not caused by one thing. Every emotional response is cause by more than one thing. It was once thought crying was only an emotional response from being sad. However that is not always the situation. An emotion response like crying could be an emotional response from frustration, anger, or happiness. In order to understand human behavior, all aspects (observing parent interactions) that cause humans to response emotionally must be studied.

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